1 Ball Skills (Manipulation Skills) At the completion of this module, participants will : • understand how the acquisition of and knowledge abo ut manipulative skills fits into the health and phy sical education domain • understand the links between the HPE domain and oth er domains relative to the acquisition of manipulat ive skills • understand the importance of the need to master man ipulative skills to enable participation in sports and games • understand the process of skill acquisition and the progressive and sequential development of motor sk ills • have knowledge of how to teach and assess manipulat ive skills • be aware of resources designed to assist teachers t o implement the ball handling component of the prim ary school physical and sport education program. 2 Participation in the ball handling program can cont ribute to students meeting standards in the Movemen t and Physical Activity Dimension and the Health Knowledg e and Promotion Dimension HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION DOMAIN - LEARNING STA NDARDS DIMENSION DIMENSION Level Movement and physical activity Health knowledge and promotion 1 At Level 1 students perform basic motor skills and movement patterns, with or without equipment, in a range of environments. They regularly engage in periods of moderate to vigorous physical activity. They use simple vocabulary to describe movement, the physical responses of their bodies to activity and their feelings about participation in physical activity. When participating in movement and physical activities, they follow rules and procedures and use equipment and space safely. In this domain, standards for the Health knowledge and promotion dimension are introduced at Level 3. 2 At Level 2, students demonstrate basic motor skills and some more complex skills. They combine motor skills and movement patterns during individual and group activities. They demonstrate control when participating in locomotor activities requiring cha nge of speed, direction and level. They create and perf orm simple rhythmic movement sequences in response to stimuli. They regularly engage in sessions of moder ate to vigorous physical activity and describe the link between physical activity and health. They explain the contribution rules and procedures make to safe conduct of games and activities. They use equipment and space safely. 3 At Level 3, students perform a broad range of complex motor skills. They demonstrate a wide variety of motor skills and apply them to basic, sp ort- specific situations. They create and perform co- ordinated movement sequences that contain a variety of motor skills and movement patterns. They participate regularly in physical activities for th e purpose of improving skills and health and describe the components of health-related fitness. They begi n to use basic games’ tactics. They work with others to achieve goals in both co-operative and competitive sporting and games’ situations, explain the concept s of fair play and respect the roles of officials. Students follow safety principles in games and activities. At Level 3 students describe the stages of human development across the human lifespan. Students exp lain basic concepts of identity and use simple strategie s to maintain and support their self-worth. They identif y basic safety skills and strategies at home, school and in the community and describe methods for recognising and avoiding harmful situations. They describe how phys ical and social components in the local environment contribute to wellbeing and identify how health ser vices and products address the health needs and concerns of the local community. They identify healthy eating practices and explain come physiological and econom ic reasons for people’s food choices. 4 At Level 4 students perform confidently and efficiently in a range of movement environments (indoor, outdoor and aquatic). They refine basic an d complex motor skills and apply these skills in increasingly complex games and activities. They maintain regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity and monitor exercise intensity. They explain the process for improving health-related fitness. Students effectively use strategic thinking and work with both more- and les s- At Level 4 students identify the likely physical, e motional and social changes that will occur during puberty. They identify and discuss the validity of the ways in wh ich people define their own and other people’s identity . They describe the actions they can take if they feel uns afe at home, school and in the community. They describe th e physical, social and emotional dimensions of health and establish health goals and plan strategies for impr oving their personal health. They describe a range of hea lth services, products and information that can be acce ssed 3 skilled peers to improve game performance. Students work independently to improve performance. They evaluate the performance of a partner and provide constructive feedback base on performance criteria to assist skill development. Students describe and analyse the various roles required in competitive sports. They work in a group to create a game and establish rules and procedures for its safe conduct . to help meet health needs and concerns. They analys e and explain physiological, social, cultural and eco nomic reasons for food choices and analyse and describe f ood selection models. They describe how to prepare and store food hygienically. The standards in bold are directly linked to the ac quisition of manipulative skills. 4 What are manipulation skills? Manipulative skills are those that involve control of an object such as a ball, beanbag, hoop, rope, r ibbon and frisbee. Most of these skills involve the hand and feet but other parts of the body can be used. Manip ulative skills develop hand-eye and foot-eye coordination w hich are particularly important for tracking object s in space. Manipulative skills include throwing, catching, kic king, trapping, striking, volleying, rolling, dribb ling. They are referred to as complex motor skills. Competence in manipulative skills generally occurs at a later sta ge than locomotor skills because of the need for complex ha nd eye and foot eye patterns required to track and intercept a moving object. Manipulative skills do n ot develop automatically. Lots of opportunities for instruction and practice are essential if students are to becom e competent with manipulative skills. The developme nt of manipulative skills leads to students becoming more actively involved in games and play activity. Com petence in manipulative skills can improve a student’s self esteem, peer acceptance and ease transition into l ocal community and other outside school environments. The acquisition of manipulative skills is a core co mponent of a comprehensive school physical and spor t education program. The foundation of manipulative skills can be begin in the early years of schooling through exploratory activities with a wide range of equipment. Skills can be furth er developed and refined in the middle years. Activ ities and games of increasing complexity can be structured so that students progressively use the skills learned and reinforce them in play situations. Lead up activit ies and modified games are particularly useful for this purpose and can be continued into the upper grades where ad vantage can be taken of community interests in the major team sports. Teaching and Learning Experiences Students require quality instruction, opportunities for practice and lots of encouragement if they are to experience early success in manipulative skills. Te achers need to plan learning experiences in a logic al manner and combine skills into more and more complex activ ities, drills and games as students improve. The us e of teacher/student demonstrations, peer teaching, verb al cues, meaningful feedback, a variety of teaching approaches, attention to students learning styles, skills progression, different equipment and teachab le moments should all be implemented to enhance this i mportant area of learning in the physical and sport education program. Games and activities should be commensurate with th e skill level of participants therefore teachers wi ll need to be able to cater for individual differences in thei r lessons. In games and activities where players are eliminate d it is critical that re-entry or skill related tas ks are available, to ensure continued and motivated involvement. 5 Student Centred Teaching and Learning Approaches The Victorian Essential Learning Standards and the Principles of Learning and Teaching encourages teac hers to use student centered learning and teaching approach es. What does this mean in a physical education con text? Traditional physical education classes tend to trea t a class of students as if it were a single child. The lesson format of warm-up, skill demonstration, skill pract ice, feedback, followed by a class game takes littl e account of students’ motor abilities, learning styles, and int ellectual development. This type of teaching approa ch requires a high level of teacher support. Learning how to learn and learning through movement are important objectives of student centred teachi ng approaches. They allow for individuals to respond a t their own level of ability and provide more oppor tunities for a degree of success. Varying the way teachers present the curriculum con tent during class can provide the learner with grea ter responsibility by becoming more involved in the lea rning process, having opportunities to explore and experiment with movement in a variety of ways. This in turn increases student motivation. The teaching approach chosen will depend on: • Teacher philosophy • Teacher knowledge of level of support needed • Students’ age, maturity, experience and motor abi lity • Topic covered • Time available A lower level of teacher support and increased stud ent involvement occurs where the teacher works clos ely with the students, guiding the learning as they beg in to apply the skills, knowledge and understanding s being taught. During independent work, the student is practising, consolidating and applying skills, knowledge and understandings being taught, so there is a high lev el of student involvement with the teacher acting a s the facilitator. Exploratory Teaching Exploratory teaching for movement skill learning re quires the teacher to present broad based movement challenges or questions without requiring a specifi c solution. The students are not required to perfor m the skill with correct technique, at this stage, it offers th em the opportunity to find their own solution to th e challenge. It is particularly useful at the beginning of a man ipulative skill unit and during the early years of school. Examples: Can you kick the ball... as hard as you can so it travels very slowly so it stays on the ground through the hoop with your opposite foot with no backswing with no knee bend