Party /  Years                                   People/ Goals/ Impact


    Federalist Party (c.1789–1816)



    Ø  Strong federal government

    Ø  Build industry, commercial sectors

    Ø  Pro-British



    Democratic-Republican Party (1792–c.1824)


    Jefferson/ Madison

    Ø  State sovereignty

    Ø  Protect agricultural interests

    Ø  Pro- French


    Anti-Masonic Party (1826–1838)


    William Wirt  and Amos Ellmaker (NOT BIG NAMES to worry about)

    Ø  One issue party

    Ø  Hated secret societies

    Ø  Used the nominating convention*  biggest contribution


    National Republican Party (1829–1833)


    JQ Adams

    Ø  Splinter group from Democratic Republicans

    Ø  Supported federal superiority

    Ø  Predecessor to the Whigs


    Whig Party (1832–1856)


    Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, W.H. Harrison

    Ø  Anti-Jackson

    Ø  Congress, not the President, reflected the will of the people.

    Ø  the "American System" *

    Ø  promoted public schools, private colleges, charities, and cultural institutions.



    Free Soil Party (1848–1855)


    Van Buren

    Ø  “Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor and Free Man”

    Ø  called for a homestead act and a tariff for revenue only.

    Ø  attracted mainly abolitionists from the North and other free states



    American Party (“Know-Nothings”) (c.1854–1855)


    Millard Fillmore

    Ø  Severe limits on immigration, especially from Catholic countries.

    Ø  Restricting political office to native-born Americans

    Ø  Mandating a wait of 21 years before an immigrant could gain citizenship.

    Ø  Restricting public school teachers to Protestants.

    Ø  Restricting the sale of liquor.



    Constitutional Union Party (1860)



    Ø  "to recognize no political principle other than the Constitution...the Union...and the Enforcement of the Laws."

    Ø  Tried to maintain status quo; hoped to provide a middle ground between Republicans and Democrats


    Populist Party (1892–1908)


    William Jennings Bryan

    Ø  Free coinage of silver,

    Ø  graduated income tax,

    Ø  government ownership of utilities,

    Ø  direct election of senators,

    Ø  one term presidency,

    Ø  initiative, referendum, recall


    Socialist Party of America (1901–1973)

    Eugene Debs (1900-1920s)

    Ø  Government control of industry

    Ø  Nationalization of services


    Progressive Party 1912 (“Bull Moose Party”) (1912–1914)


    TR !

    Ø  women's suffrage,

    Ø  easier amendment of the U.S. Constitution,

    Ø  social welfare legislation for women and children,

    Ø  New Nationalism (which was the belief in a strong government to regulate industry and protect the middle and working classes.


    States' Rights Democratic Party (“Dixiecrats”) (1948)


    Strom Thurmond

    Ø  segregation

    Ø  states rights

    Ø  angry response to Truman’s pro-civil rights stand (desegregation of armed forces)




    American Independent Party (1968).


    George Wallace

    Ø  angry response to LBJ’s Civil Rights legislation

    Ø  “Segregation Now, Segregation Tomorrow, Segregation Forever”

    Ø  Despised counter-culture movement

    Ø   a "law and order" campaign similar to that of Richard Nixon

    Ø  Supports increases in Social Security and Medicare (presumably for Whites)




    Greens/Green Party USA (1991–2005)

    Ralph Nadar

    Ø  Environmental issues

    Ø  2000 election and the spoiler role