Philosophy and Rationale As education moves into the 21st century, the reform movement of the past decade continues to gain momentum, challenging students across all disciplines with higher expectations.Performance-based concepts (Zhu 1997) have evolved that define and assess what all students should know, understand, and be able to do as a result of their schooling. As such, many national, state, and local organizations have worked to re-shape the "vision" of education, helping students to receive an intellectually powerful education no matter where they live; by closely linking teaching, assessment, and the provisions of support (McDonald 2001). Standards have been written to more closely align students expectations with teacher goals relative to core curriculums and to enhance parent understanding with respect to describing student outcomes.Itis the goal of this text to make each of us, as teachers, question and reflect upon how we teach and why we teach the way we do, in an attempt to shape teaching practices that are best for our students. This section specifically examines the roles that standards,curriculum and learning experiences play in affecting student outcomes.LEARNING STANDARDS When one considers that "play"and "physical activity" make up a large part of a young child's exploratory experience, the importance of physical education in the overall schoo lcurriculum becomes obvious (Miller,Cheffers, and Whitcomb 1974). This is particularly relevant in today's educational environment when you consider the increased number ofchildren with learning disabilities orspecial needs. Many of these children have atendency to learn certain academicskills and concepts better through a medium ofphysical activity than through the more traditional classroomapproaches (Humphrey 1990). Thorough and complete planning, as described byManross and Templeton1(1997), should take into accountcognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects oflearning. Such aspects must be incorporated into a student'seducational program if it is to truly be successful and the learningexperiences presented in Sections II and III of this text do just that(McSjyegin, Pemberton, Petray, and Going 1989). Having recognized theimportance of physical activity in helping young children learn, learning standards have been developed on the national, state and local levels,making physical education a mandatory of part of each child's overalleducational experience by law in many states.This book focuses on onlythe New York State Standards relative to elementaryphysicaleducation.NewYork State Standards for Elementary P.E.The New York State Education Department (1996) has establishedlearning standards for a number of auricular areas (Health, Physical Education,and Home Economics; Mathematics, Science, and Technology; English LanguageArts; Languages Other Than English; The Arts; Career Development andOccupational Studies; and Social Studies).Specific to Physical Education, threelevels of learning standards have been specified (elementary,intermediate, and commencement). For elementary children the standards are:•Standard It Personal Health and Fitness, which states, "Students will have the necessary knowledge and skills to establish and maintainphysical fitness, participate in physical activity, and maintainpersonal health."•Standard 2: A Safeand Healthy Environment, which states,"Students will acquire the knowledge andability necessary to create and maintain a safe and healthy environment",and•Standard 3:Resource Management, which states, "Students will understandand be able to manage their personal and community resources."Performance indicators (benchmarks), as presented in Table 1:1, help to more clearly define each of the three standards.Inreading through Table 1:1 you will notice that they focus on the child as an"individual", a characteristic of expert teaching as described by Manross and Templeton (1997). Each of the learningexperiences (lesson plans) presented inSections II and HI of this text connect with specific performance indicatorsfrom the New York State Framework Standards.Helping students reach these standards is atwo-fold challenge that takes into account curriculum design andeffective daily delivery of learning experiences that are bothmeaningful and relevant to students.THE CURRICULUM DESIGNThe physical education curriculum servesas the guiding light that directs students toward the achievement of standardsusing a variety of learning experiences that connect with performanceindicators (benchmarks).Thecurriculum proposed in this text define ourvalue (worth) in the educational process by intertwining the curricular threads of developmentalfitness, interdisciplinary integration, and pro-social skill buildingwith student-centered learning experiences.Defined simply, a student-centeredcurriculum is one that teaches to outcomes using skill themes (throwing/catching,kicking, striking, kinesthetic, jumping/landing, exploration, etc.) as opposed to teaching sport-specific skills. Sport-relatedgames are of course taught, but they are a "means" to an end,pathways to an outcome, not the "end" or "outcome" in and of themselves. As an example,we shouldn't teach "team handball" to makeour students better team handball players per se. We should use team handballto explore such developmental fitness skillsas aerobic and anaerobic fitness; interdisciplinary concepts likespatial awareness (science) and angles (math); and the pro^social skillsof playing a game, self control, and being a good sport. From a "thematic" perspective, team handball is butone activity that promotes throwing and catching, court awareness (with respectto offensive balance and the creation of passing lanes),and defensive principles. Ultimate football and basketball would be other such games within the theme of throwing and catching thatteach to the same curricular threads. Theoutcome of such experiences for the student is greater than merely masteringthe game itself.Table 1:2 The Primary (K-3) CurriculumWeek;Game-Activitv:1.Introduction (rules, safety, and familiarity)2.Exploratory activities3.Juggling activities and tag games4.Parachute, wand and hoop activities5.Throwing/catching themes6.Ropes and jumping activities7.Relays and scooter play8.Kicking themes9.Rhythms and fitness testing10.Track and field themes11.Striking themes12.Group games13.Balances and rolls14.Apparatus and climbing15.Obstacle courses16.Exploratory activities17.Juggling activities and tag games18.Parachute, wand and hoop activities19.Winter activities20.Ropes and jumping activities21.Relays and scooter play22.Throwing/catching themes23.Rhythms and fitness testing24.Track and field themes25.Striking themes26.Group games27.Exploratory activities28.Juggling activities and tag games29.Parachute, wand and hoop activities30.Throwing/catching themes31.Ropes and jumping activities32.Relays and scooter play33.Kicking themes34.Rhythms and fitness testing35.Track and field themes36.Striking themes37.Group games38.Closure (review experiences and summer safety)Table1:3 The Intermediate (4-6) Curriculum.Week:Game-Activity:•;38.Introduction (class orientation, rules, procedures, and safety)Pass over and ultimate footballEnd line soccer and six-on-six soccerHand hockey and pilo poloFitness assessmentThree base football and flag footballCaptain and crew golfBoxballTwo base alley kickballMulti-pin sideline soccerEnd line hockeyQuadrant volleyballBalances and rollsApparatus and climbingObstacle coursesDance and challenge gamesDance and challenge gamesTeam handballWinter activitiesIndoor soccerFloor hockeyThree on three and full court basketballTargetballQuidditch lacrosseObstacle kickballDance and volleyballModified cricketAmeba soccerGarbage can baseballOrienteeringTrack and fieldTrack and fieldTrack and fieldFitness assessmentFrisbee golf and ultimate FrisbeeCapture the flagSoftballClosure (review experiencesand summer safety)__________ Table1:4 Suggested Activities for Primary and Intermediate Students.ACTIVITYK-34-6Basic Exploration and Manipulative TasksExploratory Activities*Parachute Activities*WandActivities*HoopActivities*Ball Handling Activities*Juggling Activities*JumpRope Activities*Game ActivitiesTagGames .*Relays*Ball Games*CooperativeGames*Kinesthetic ExperiencesLowLevel Challenges*High Level ChallengesProblemSolving Courses*Track and Field ExperiencesJumping and LandingActivities*Throwing Activities*Speed Dynamics and RunningRhythmical ActivitiesBasicRhythmical Concepts*LineDances*Circle Dances Square and ReelDancesCatching/Throwing ThemesBasicCatching/Throwing*Catching/Throwing GamesKicking ThemesBasicKicking Concepts*Kicking GamesStriking ThemesBasicStriking Concepts*Striking GamesCooperative ThemesBasic CooperativeConcepts*Cooperative Games__________ **** * * ** * *** * *been accounted for in visiting andre-visiting age appropriate skills. Tables A; 1-A:3 list behavioral tendenciesby developmental levels with each of the three aforementioned domains. Ideally, these levels could be separated intotwo categories, primary (K-3) and Intermediate (4-6) but life isnot so easy. As anyone who has taught will tell you, there is a "tremendous" overlapping of behavioraltendencies within and between elementary grade levels. The tables presented inthe appendix are only meant to serve as guides, and should not beinterpreted as anything more. In addition to the "behavioraltendencies" there are also tables to clarify and suggest track and fieldactivities (A: 4), kinesthetic challenges (A:5)and dance activities (A:6). What is noteworthy however, is that the curriculums and learning experiences, as presented inSections II and HI, are based on practical experience as opposed to theory.They have been "tried and tested" by real teachers with real children and have proved to besuccessful in terms of pupil enjoyment, participation andachievement.A student-centered "physicaleducation" curriculum helps to prepare students for a healthy,fitness-oriented lifestyle. By integrating interdisciplinary and pro-social concepts into the daily learning experiences, along withdevelopmental fitness activities, greaterunderstanding and self-responsibility will be promoted through physical, intellectual,and social growth.Designing Learning Experiences within the CurriculumThe overriding emphasis in designing learningexperiences is to connect the core Curriculum with the standards via theperformance indicators (benchmarks). Each ofthe learning experiences presented in Sections II and III meet this challengeby weaving the three previously discussed curricular threads (developmentalfitness, interdisciplinary integration, and pro-social skill building) intobroad-based experiences that have meaning and relevance forstudents on multiple levels. It has been suggested by Corbin (1987) that to be fit for a lifetime,individuals must set objectives and be taught skillsthat enable them to assess their own fitness, interpret their own results, anddevelop personal fitness programs by findingsolutions to their own personal fitness problems. To do so involves the development of problem-solvingskills, expanding one's repertoire of pro-socialskills, and applying knowledge across a number of academic areas as well. Sinceevery student participates in physical education, ours is a logical disciplinewithin the educational model to explore and target the aforementioned curricularthreads in each of the daily learning experiences that we prepare.DEVELOPMENTAL FITNESSDuring the 1980's a number of studiespointed to the fact that our children were less physically fit than theirpredecessors were. Bar-Or (1987) found that children weighed more and had morebody fat than did children of earlier generations. His findings concluded that obesity had increased fifty-four percentin children ages six to eleven. Datafor 'The National Children and Youth Fitness Study" collected in the1980's pointed out that inadequate time was spentteaching the lifetime skills that are needed for activelifestyles out of school and as adults. This created a renewed focus on the improved teaching of life skills (Pate, Ross, Dotson, andGilbert 1985; Ross and Gilbert 1985). McGinnis (1987) revealed that one thirdof all youth ages ten to eighteen did notyengagein sufficient physical activity to provide aerobic benefit. Perhaps mostshocking were the findings by The American Academy of Pediatrics that reportedforty percent of children ages five to eight have at least one risk factor forcoronary disease (Olson 1990).•Exercise intensity should be monitored with perceived exertion(Borg Scale) as opposed to heart rates,•Specific time should be seaside during the day for the purpose ofexercise, and•Exercise sessions need to be creatively designed tomaintain interest in order for children to successful engage in sustainedperiods of exercise.By targeting fitness development through the physical educationcurriculum, preferably on a daily basis, this text purports that we can impacton our students in a more positive vane than "traditional" programs havedone in the past This is accomplished through the use of "health-relatedfitness modules", "fitness-related game modules", and fitnesstesting that allows for students to self-assess their own fitness levels forlifelong learning.INTEGRATING INTERDISCIPLINARY CONCEPTSThe need for integrating interdisciplinary concepts into thephysical education setting is essential if we, as physical educators, are to beviewed as a vital part of a student's education (Heitmann and Kneer 1976;Petray 1989). The potential to provide or relate information is limitless ifyou think about the many interdisciplinary principles that apply tophysical-activity, game, and sport performance. Math (angles, counting,probability) and science (momentum, friction, trajectory) are two examples ofsubject areas whose concepts are applied daily in the physical educationsetting. There are of course many others. Each of the learning experiences presentedin Sections II and III list interdisciplinary concepts that would beappropriate for that given lesson.PRO-SOCIAL SKILL BUILDINGThe importance of developing a positive school climate is morethan timely; it is paramount in fostering student achievement. There are anumber of initiatives that have gained popularity today which seek to improveschool environments through enhanced student learning. The "reformmovement' of the 1980's (school restructuring) and more recently, the"safe school" initiative are but two examples. Bom out of research,they promote a more positive school environment through cooperative learning,conflict management, and hands on learning, among other student relevantprinciples. Theseinitiativeshave caused content and the delivery of curriculum to receive renewed attention.Table 1:5 Pro-Social Skills That LendThemselves to Being Taught in Physical Education.Survival Skills:#1 Listening#2 Asking for help#3 Saying 'Uank you"#4 Being prepared#5 Following instructionsRelationshipBuilding Skills. #10 Joining in #11 Playing agame #12 Offering help to a peer #13 Giving a complimentSkills for Coping with Feelings:#18 Knowing your feelings #19Expressing your feelings#20 Recognizing the feelings ofothers#6 Offering help#7 Asking a question#8 Ignoring a distraction#9 Making a decision#14 Accepting a compliment#15 Sharing#16 Waiting in line#17 Apologizing#21 Expressing concern and under­standinganother # 22 Dealing with your angerGlasser (1995) advocates the omission of teaching non-relevant facts to students, rather, placing a focus on "useful" skills: self-expression, listening, reading, and problem solving. Golarz and Golarz (1995) support a similar philosophy urging schools to teach skills that will help students achieve satisfaction in life. Wilson and Daviss (1994) call for the teaching of pro-social skills as well, making these skills a part of the overall school curriculum.Alternatives to Aggression:#23 Self-control#24 Asking permission#25 Responding to teasing#26 Avoiding troubleSkills for Dealing with Stress:#31 Dealing with boredom #32 Deciding what caused aproblem #33 Making a complaint #34 Dealing with losing #35 Being a good sport #36 Dealing with being left out#27 Problem solving#28 Accepting consequences#29 Dealing with accusations#30 Negotiating#37 Dealing with embarrassment #38Reacting to failure#39 Accepting "No"#40 Dealing with group pressure #41Making decisions#42 Being honestTo be most successful, pro-social skillstrategies need to be delivered by a group of personnel (McGinnis andGoldstein 1997) and it is certainly logical for the physical educator to beincluded in that group. Table 1:5 lists each of the pro-social skills that are includedthroughout the elementary curriculum.The physical education curriculum should,therefore, include activities to meet not only physical education objectivesbut also the objectives students encounter throughout their total school andlife endeavors, particularly activities that build skills to promote outcomes leading to enhancedself-responsibility (Smith 1985). Themanner in which daily learning experiencesare presented with respect to integrating the previouslydescribed curricular threads will impact on how successful your learningenvironment is for your students. Modular programming will help you to thisend.MODULAR LESSONSThere are a number of approaches thatteachers can take with respect to planning and formatting daily lessons. Themodular approach, which can best be described as an organizational "menu" of sorts with respect toteaching procedure allows for the smooth implementation of each of the New YorkState Standards and the aforementionedcurricular threads. Such an approach has been clearly describedin previously published literature (Smith andCestaro 1992; Smith 1994; Smith and Cestaro 1998).The strength of this approaches that it allows for flexibility with respect tokeeping lessons relevant and progressive based on students' needs and interms of meeting class objectives. Using a variety of skill developmenttechniques that take into account varied learningstyles, student outcomes can be maximized.The various modular components (entry,warm-ups, health related fitness concepts, skill development, game activities,and closure) use printed word, graphic display, real object (equipment), and human encounters to smoothly andeffectively deliver objectives (Smith and Cestaro 1992; Smith1994).Defining the Modular ComponentsTable 1:6 will help in clarifying thecomponents of a modular lesson. It is based on a 40-minute class period for intermediate students \b&tis quite typical of most fourth, fifth, and sixth grade programs that meettwo times per week. The lessons presented in Section m follow such aformat. First, second and third grade programs typically meet three times per week for 30-minute blocks and the lessonspresented in Section II have been adjustedaccordingly by eliminating the health-relatedfitness conceptmodule and reducing the skill development and gameactivity modules. Each of the modular segments issubsequently described.CLASS OVERVIEW (30 seconds)The class overview provides studentswith a brief synopsis of the day's lesson. This allows you to explain theobjectives to students when they arrive for class, or, if the students change their clothes for class, you can announcethe objectives in the lockerroom or post them on abulletin board for the students to read. For example, an overview might be assimple as, "Welcome folks. Here is where we are headed today. We will startclass by warming up with a fitness circuit, then discuss heart function andpulse rate, practice striking skills, and finish class with a striking game:The result for each of you will be improved fitness, a better understanding ofyour heart's function, improved skill levels, and a fun time."Table 1:6 Components of aModular Lesson.Time:0:00:000:00:300:02:300:05:300:08:000:21:000:23:00 •0:38:000:00:30 0:02:30 0:05:30 0:08:00 0:21:00 0:23:00 0:38:00 0:40:00Activity:Class Overview (30 seconds)Entry (2 minutes)Warm-Up Module (3 minutes)Health-Related Fitness Concept Module (2:30minutes)Skill Development via Selected Drills (13minutes)Transition Period (2 minutes)Game Activity Module (15 minutes)Closure (2 minutes)This table is adapted with permission fromthe Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, April 1995,page 70. The Journal is a publication of the American Alliance forHealth, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance,1900 Association Drive, Restoh, VA 20191.ENTRY(2 Minutes)Next, students enter the gym, and they are moving from themoment that they do so. There is no wasted time. They are expected to move...they know it.. .they do it! The purpose of this component is twofold. First,students equate the gym with movement, and secondly, it starts the warm-upprocess. Each of the lessons presented in Sections II and EI provide ideas onhow to vary the entry process to maintain student interest whiletargeting locomotor development or speed dynamics. Essentially, students willbe asked to participate in rhythmical movements that utilize large muscle groupinvolvement.Students can be further motivated through the use of music to varytempos—slower-paced music for walking and faster-paced for running. You can usethe music and varied tempos to focus student attention on creative movementswhile verbally talking about the physiological changes and benefits resultingfrom their "warm-up entry."This is an ideal time to take attendance, observe who is unprepared,and perforin other record keeping chores as opposed to the more traditional,and time-consuming, method of sitting the students down and working your waythrough cards or a grade-book. The entry module need only take twominutes.WARM UP MODULE (3 Minutes)The warm-up module follows the entry segment in the lesson.The purpose of this module varies. At times it uses a circuit that isconsistent with the activity lying ahead (i.e., you could use a lower-bodystrength circuit for a volleyball-type game activity because volleyballrequires lower-body agility and. power). Conversely, it may use anaerobic warm-up circuit because volleyball isa more anaerobic-type activity. Or, because volleyball requires leg strengthand agility, it may use a warm-up circuit that developsupper-body strength, giving your students a more complete body workout during the overall class period. Furthermore, at othertimes, "cooperative activities" are used to promote teamwork withclasses. These decisions have been made throughout Section IH based on the state standards and thepro-social skills being targeted in a given learning experience.The suggested warm-up modules presented inSection HI (see Table 1:6) will allow intermediatestudents to achieve success at a levelrelative to his or her abilities (skill level, fitness capacity, or body size).This segment also allows each child to remain an individual.It caters to those students who are struggling in class, as well as theenriched, both of whom do not like to depend on theactions or help of others. Such activities appealto the independent nature of all students.Table 1:6 Warm-UD Activities for Intermediate Elementary StudentsFitness CircuitsPower. Speed and Aalitv Drills Bounding (Part 1)Fitness with PartnersJump Rope ActivitiesBounding (Part 2)Leg, Chest and AbsMulti-Directional Speed CircuitLower-Body StrengthPower and Agility (Part 1)Lower-Body StretchPower and Agility (Part 2)Static and Dynamic StretchingPower and Agility (Part 3)The Hula-Hoop ExperiencePushing and Pulling Your BodyweightThe Total Body (Part 1)Speed Dynamics (Part 1)The Total Body (Part 2), Speed Dynamics (Part 2)The Total Body (Part 3)ITie Football MazeThe Ultimate CircuitVertical Jumps and PullsUpper-Body StrengthCooperative ActivitiesPushing and Pulling Your Own WeightBall ThiefBasket-BowlSquare DancingCircle DancingTitanicFitness with PartnersLine DancingMemory MazeHEALTH RELATED FITNESS CONCEPT MODULES (2:30 Minutes)The health related'fitness module isdesigned to help students connect knowledge with the physical, throughthe activities that they participate in during class relative to lifelong health and fitness goals. It also serves to"connect" health-related issues with those science concepts being taught in the classroom thatspecifically relate to the human body.The month-long modules are designed to helpstudents better understand, and relate to, theeffect that exercise and lifestyle choices have on their bodies. Presented inshort "sound bites", using creativityand memorable delivery cues, these blurbs can be quiteeffective in reaching manyof today's students. Over a 10-month period (see Table 1:7), cardiovascular,pulmonary, muscular, nutritional, and fitness concepts are explored throughconcise, direct, weekly focuses.Table 1:7 Monthly HealthRelated Fitness ConceptsSeptemberOctoberNovemberDecemberJanuaryFebruaryMarchAprilMayJuneThe HeartThe LungsMuscles of the ChestMuscles of the BackMuscles of the Abdominal WallMuscles of the Hip and ThighMuscles of the Lower LegMuscles of the Arm and ShoulderEating for Health: A Nutritional PlanPhysicalFitness: A Lifestyle__ SKILL DEVELOPMENT MODULES (13 Minutes)Skill drills are based on the lessonobjectives for a given day (e.g., striking, kicking, etc.)- Thismodule allows students of varied levels to work on skill development at theirown pace and capacity, without the added pressure of game-type demands. Thiscomponent of the lesson format serves as the traditional"instructional" time within a class, using drills that areclassically put forth in "methods" classes and "coaching"texts.TRANSITIONTIME (2 Minutes)Put simply, transition time is a two-minute window forstudents to move from skill development to activity participation. Equipment isrelocated if necessary, game rules and objectives are reviewed, and teams areformed. It is important that this time be planned for as research has foundthat disruptive behaviors are more likely to occur during"management" time as opposed to periods of instruction or activity(Rink 1993; Siedentop 1991).As an example, during a lesson on "hand hockey" I mightsay something like: "OK... everybody put your balls away and sit on thecenter circle please. Today's game is hand hockey, and here are therules..." As I am describing the rules, I would be setting up cones tomark the end zones or have two students do it. This is an ideal time to pointout that the end zones and mid-court area are rectangles and asquare respectively. Using a "question and answer" format I wouldascertain that these areas are in fact geometric shapes and because theiropposite sides are parallel and their opposite internal angles, equal 180degrees, they are therefore parallelograms. Furthermore, what makesthese shapes "special" parallelograms (rectangles and a square) isthat all of the internal angles are right angles (90 degrees) and, as such,they must either be a rectangle or square based on the relative length of theiropposing and adjacent sides.While this should take no longer than one minute to present, Ihave integrated the interdisciplinary concept of geometric patterns in amanner relevant to the environment of my students. For many, this will helpthem to connect more closely with such a matheffective in reaching many of today'sstudents. Over a 10-month period (see Table 1:7), cardiovascular, pulmonary, muscular, nutritional,and fitness concepts are explored through concise,direct, weekly focuses.Table 1:7 Monthly Health Related Fitness ConceptsSeptemberThe HeartOctoberThe LungsNovemberMuscles of the ChestDecemberMuscles of the BackJanuaryMuscles of the Abdominal WallFebruaryMuscles of me Hip and ThighMarchMuscles of the Lower LegAprilMuscles of the Arm and ShoulderMayEating for Health: A Nutritional PlanJunePhysical Fitness: A LifestyleSKILL DEVELOPMENT MODULES (13 Minutes)Skill drills are based on the lesson objectives for a given day (e.g.,striking, kicking, etc.). This module allowsstudents of varied levels to work on skill development at their own pace and capacity, without the added pressure ofgame-type demands. This component of the lesson format serves as thetraditional "instructional" time within a class, using drills that are classically put forth in"methods" classes and "coaching" texts.TRANSITION TIME (2 Minutes)Put simply, transition time is atwo-minute window for students to move from skill development to activity participation. Equipment isrelocated if necessary, game rules and objectives are reviewed, and teams areformed. It is important that this time be planned for as research has found that disruptivebehaviors are more likely to occur during"management" time as opposed to periods of instruction or activity(Rink 1993; Siedentop 1991).As an example, during a lesson on "handhockey" I might say something like: "OK...everybody put your balls away and sit on the center circle please. Today's gameis hand hockey, and here are therules..." As I am describing the rules, I would be setting up cones to mark the end zones or have two students doit. This is an ideal time to point out that the end zones and mid-courtarea are rectangles and a square respectively. Using a "question andanswer" format I would ascertain that these areas are in fact geometricshapes and because their opposite sides are parallel and their oppositeinternal angles, equal 180 degrees, they are therefore parallelograms. Furthermore,what makes these shapes "special" parallelograms(rectangles and a square) is that all of the internal angles are right angles(90 degrees) and as such, they must either be a rectangle or square based onthe relative length of their opposing and adjacent sides.While this should take no longer than oneminute to present, I have integrated the interdisciplinaryconcept of geometric patterns in a manner relevant tothe environment of my students. For many, this will help them to connect moreclosely with such a mathconcept, particularly the tactual-kinesthetic learners who will bemoving through these shapes.Next I would quickly divide my class into three teams, perhaps bybirthdays (January— April, May—August, and September—December), by shirt colors(whites; blues, greens, and blacks; and everyone else), or by some other randommethod. Students would then be set into position, and we would start the gameactivity, repeating the directions as play is initiated.GAMEACTIVITY MODULES (15 Minutes)The "fitness-oriented" game activities aremeant to challenge students with fun, action-packed experiences. Thelearning experiences presented in Sections II (Table 1:8) and HI (Table 1:9)are filled with such activities. Their design and rules will help all studentsmake meaningful contributions to the activity, regardless of developmentallevel. All students thus will experience more numerous opportunities at successwithin each activity as compared with the most traditional of games in which aselect few play at the "skilled" positions. As game activitiesprogress, a variety of cues (auditory, visual, and tactual-kinesthetic) willcreate an environment in which all learning styles will thrive.Through participation is such games, the total class populationwill be more active and ultimately receive more physical fitness benefits fromyour class. Students will display a higher level of interest in the class, andgenerally, they will contribute to and learn from the class experience ratherthan shy away from it or detract from it with negative behaviors, as can becommon.CLOSURE(2 Minutes)Closure provides the opportunity to review the daily objectives of a givenlearning experience with students. Use this time to reinforce the numerousopportunities they had at success, the interest they showed toward activity,and the high-energy enthusiasm they displayed toward the overall classexperience. Closure is also an appropriate time to review any questionsstudents may have. Children feel a need to talk about the purpose of what theyhave learned and using a question and answer format at the end of classprovides them with an excellent vehicle for doing so (Sanders 1996).I might say: "Everyone please have a seat right here in frontof me. I saw a lot of good things in class today.. .1 saw people use teamworkto move the ball.. I saw people change body shapes to get high andlow balls... I saw great cooperation" While talking, I would makeeye contact with appropriate students or single them out for praise to furtherreinforce these positive behaviors. I would also query the students about theclass and have them raise their hands to answer questions I might ask like:"Did you get any aerobic exercise today.. .Did you score anygoals today.. .Did you have fun today?"Closure also provides an opportune time to discuss the learningexperience's planned pro-social skills, "dealing with losing", as anexample. Take it a step further by discussing the suggested skills in a waythat help students connect in school, at home, and with their peers.Table 1:8 Sample GameActivities for the Primary Student.Inside/Outside Relay Jack Rabbit Relay Junkyard Relay Medley Relay Opposing BowlTagGamesBack to BackBase TagBronco TagCapture the FlagCat and MiceCharlie Over the WaterChase and MazeCrows and CranesElbow TagFarmer and the RabbitFlag TagHuTDillHound and RabbitLocomotor TagMidnightMouse TrapPartner TagRed LightRescue TagSecurity GuardSnow TagSquad TagSquirrels in the TreesSteal the BaconTreasure GuardRelaysBean Bag Toss Boxball Relay Down and Back Four by Twenty Five HoopAroundHula-HoopJump Rope Opposition RelayGroupGamesBear and HoneyBridgesCircular Colors/ShapesClean Up Their YardColors in the CenterFly TrapForest RangerHome AgainHome Run DerbyHot PotatoMat TennisMonkey in the MiddleNewcombNumber ExchangeOne, Two, Button My ShoePin BallPoison BallPredators and PreyPunch BallScooter SoccerShape EscapeSnowball AlleySnowball ChallengeSnowball TossSnowman ChallengeSoccer PopperStarWarsStop BallStrike ThreeT-BallTeam BallTeam GauntletPass Around Potato Farmer Progressive Partner Scooter TriathlonTadpole RelayTable 1:9 Sample Game Activities for the Intermediate Student (4-6) listed byPredominant Theme.Throwing/CatchingTrack & FieldStrikingFlag FootballDashesBoxballFrisbee GolfDiscusEnd Line HockeyFull Court BasketballDistance RunningFloor HockeyPass OverHigh JumpGarbage Can BaseballQuidditch LacrosseHurdlesHand HockeyTeam HandballLong JumpModified CricketThree Base FootballRelay RacesPiloPoloThree on Three BasketballShot PutQuadrant VolleyballTwo Base Alley KickballSoftball ThrowSoftballUltimate FootballTriple JumpVolleyballUltimate FrisbeeChallenge ActivitiesKickingCooperative ActivitiesFitness AssessmentsAmeba SoccerCapture the FlagFootball DeterminationCaptain & Crew GolfCircle DancesGrip and RipEnd Line SoccerLine DancesPlatform WrestlingIndoor SoccerOrienteeringPush BallMulti-Pin SoccerSquare DancingTake the PinObstacle Kickball Six-on-Six SoccerWinter ActivitiesKinesthetic ExperiencesApparatus and ClimbingBalance and RollsObstacle CoursesFollow up with encouraging words andreinforce any fitness-based goals you might have. You might say something like: "Well then, that was agreat class. Look how successful youwere. Now, find your pulse... and...count." After 10-seconds, say,"Stop...and multiply your number by six. Raise your handif your pulse rate now is higher than it was at rest... Raise your hand if yourrate was higher during exercise..." Briefly explain again why, wish the class a good day, and watch them calmlyexit the gym having been relaxed at the endof class. If they are capable of multi-tasking they could even be stretchingwhile you have your closure discussion.Do not be surprised at how fast your classesgo by; time flies when a class is highly organizedand "clkking." Manross and Templeton (1997), who describe thedistinctive characteristics of expert teachers, those characteristicsthat set them apart from theirpeers.;list "thorough and complete planning" that takes into account cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects, asthe number one character trait.By using the modular lesson format presentedin this text and managing thesuggestedsegments, you should have highly productive, highly successful classes. In a word, your physical education program should become more"positive" for all involved asyour students strive to achieve the higher standards set by the State of NewYork. Table 1:10 provides you with some "tricks of the trade" thatwill help to make your classes even more effective.Table1:10 "Tricks of the Trade" for Successful TeachingMake classes relevant for your studentsMaximize the lead-up and modified gamesRotate activities weekly by teaching in oneweek unitsFocus on skill themes, not sportthemesAppraise students of your goalsTeach in modulesHelp students to connect with "wholeschool" concepts through interdisciplinaryintegrationBe a role modelExude enthusiasmCommunicate clearly and positivelyManage class time for smooth transitionsChange you voice inflection to stress keyconceptsExplain (auditory), demonstrate (visual), andprovide "hands on" experiences (tactile-kinesthetic) to help students learnPosition yourself in the gym to observe theentire classUse music to motivate and control tempoPlay songs like "Cotton Eye Joe"and 'The Chicken Dance" during sideline games toachieve spontaneous dancing by students whilethey waitUse flashcards to help studentsvisualize words that you useUse folded mats to separate stations andcontain equipmentHelp students to connect with communityresources by posting camp brochures andnews of local interestDiscuss seasonal safety issues relative toplayProvide those "extra" experiencesthat create a lifetime of memories and extend thenormal school day curriculum (running club,intramurals, parent and child play nightsand gym shows)Have asmuch fun as your students do!________________________________ Portions of this chapter are reprinted withpermission from Smith, T. and N. Cestaro: Student-CenteredPhysical Education: Strategies for Developing Middle School Fitness andSkills. 1998. Champaign, JL: Human Kinetics.suggestedsegments, you should have highly productive, highly successful classes. In aword, your physical education program should become more "positive"for all involved as your students strive to achieve thehigher standards set by the State of New York. Table 1:10 provides you withsome "tricks of the trade" that will help to make your classeseven more effective.Table 1:10 "Tricks of the Trade" forSuccessful TeachingMake classes relevant for your studentsMaximize the lead-up and modified gamesRotate activities weekly by teaching in oneweek unitsFocus on skill themes, not sportthemesAppraise students of your goalsTeach in modulesHelp students to connect with "wholeschool" concepts through interdisciplinaryintegrationBe a role modelExude enthusiasmCommunicate clearly and positivelyManage class time for smooth transitionsChange you voice inflection to stress heyconceptsExplain (auditory), demonstrate (visual), andprovide "hands on" experiences (tactile-kinesthetic) to help students learnPosition yourself in the gym to observe theentire classUse music to motivate and control tempoPlay songs like "Cotton Eye Joe"and "The Chicken Dance" during sideline games toachieve spontaneous dancing by students whilethey waitUse flashcards to help studentsvisualize words that you useUse folded mats to separate stations andcontain equipmentHelp students to connect with communityresources by posting camp brochures andnews of local interestDiscuss seasonal safety issues relative toplayProvide those "extra" experiencesthat create a lifetime of memories and extend thenormal school day curriculum (running club,intramurals, parent and child play nightsand gym shows)Have as much fun as your students do!________________________________ A SPECIAL THANK YOU TO MR.TIM SMITH.A MASTER TEACHER/COACH WHO IS NOT ONLY AN INCREDIBLE INSTRUCTOR BUT A TREMENDOUS ROLE-MODEL!!!!CARPE DIEM!